Author: Warren Dym. The study of German mining and metallurgy has focused overwhelmingly on labor, capitalism, and progressive engineering and earth science. This book addresses prospecting practices and mining culture.
Using the divining, or dowsing rod as a means of exposing miner beliefs, it argues that a robust vernacular science preceded institutionalized geology in Saxony, and that the Freiberg Mining Academy f. The tacit knowledge of dowsing was the mark of the experienced prospector, and rather than decline in importance through the Enlightenment, the practice transformed from a study of mineral vapors into an experimental branch of geophysics.
Mining administrations openly hired practitioners through the eighteenth century. Prices from excl. VAT :. View PDF Flyer. Contents About. Restricted Access. However, what will be clear from this thesis is that ghosts and the supernatural were closely intertwined within narratives of war, at the personal and societal level and as a means of negotiating the past, present and future. In an already enchanted world, the stresses and memory of conflict and bloodshed heightened the relevance of spirit narratives as well as demanding an explanation for what these strange and often inexplicable experiences and situations actually were.
Furthermore, in the late seventeenth century and early eighteenth century, war was constantly present either as a looming threat or as a reality in both England and Germany. The period was marked by two great conflicts. It was in this context that so many of the tales present in this thesis were collected, printed and told and thus inevitable that so many would deal with ghosts in this setting. This thesis aims to address the gap in the literature involving ghosts and war in the early modern period in the German and English record.
There are no specific studies focused on this exact topic. Several deal with supernatural tropes involving spirit armies and ghosts seen in war contexts but none have attempted a wider overview which embraces the diversity of haunting in the period. Terms for Ghosts When we look for ghosts in the early modern English record, certain terms stand out. It usually depended on the point of view of the author and the activities of the entity itself.
Tierney, 'Return of the Repressed? Knopf, ; D. Writers such as Ludwig Lavater often included long taxonomies of classical spirits, near the start of their works, some of which could be associated with spirits of the dead. This may be the actual spirit of the deceased or it may not be.
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I will not restrict myself to what Protestant polemic mocked as the spirit of the dead par excellence, the supplicatory Purgatorial ghost. Instead, by looking at a wide range of tropes, in different places and in different situations notably war , I hope to present a much more realistic and comprehensive portrait of the ghost, more in tune with popular belief. Outline of Study This thesis is divided into two chapters which are then subdivided into themed sections.
The first chapter looks at ghosts and stories linked to certain places. We start by examining how people understood hauntedness within their own local communities, and how this Lecouteux, Return, ; Lecouteux, Secret History, Hoffmann-Krayer and G. We will look at how sin was remembered in the landscape through hauntings by Catholics and Protestants, and how these walkings of spirits in place reflected confessional differences.
From there, we will look at how the Devil haunted the wilds and coursed the woods. We will note the difficulties encountered in discerning the human dead amongst the spirits of the wild. We will examine spirit lights in the countryside at night and how they were interpreted. We will look at why ruins were infested with spirits and how decay was both cause and consequence of hauntings.
The haunted monastery was one such place which reflected the deeper confessional rivalries, and ambivalences of the Reformation.pl.xyhypyferomy.tk
Alte Brücke (Frankfurt)
From there, we will examine why the graveyard remained a place of fear and power, and how themes of purity and pollution were negotiated by apparitions and how this current of belief ran uninterrupted from the medieval into the early modern period. Revenants, or the dangerous dead who lurked in their graves or rose from them to wreak havoc amongst the living, deserve their own special mention here, as well as the graveyard being a site for ghostly portents and destination of funeral processions of spirits.
We will look at the haunted house from the outside and see how people discerned ghosts in ways different from the theologians. We will see how treasure was central to many hauntings. The haunted castle was another site where apparitions were seen, tied to dark memories of the past and warning of the imminent death of their occupants. The final site we consider is the haunted inn, a place evocative of murderous innkeepers and violated hospitalities, obscured identities and of death far from home.
The second chapter deals with ghosts linked to war, seen prior to, during and after a conflict. It starts with ghostly armies of spirits seen on land and in the skies and their multiple meanings. It then examines the haunted battlefield and how themes of slaughter, pollution and bad death were interpreted through Protestant and Catholic spirit tropes. We will look at the role atrocity played in making ghosts and how they were both creatures of individual conscience and wider national and confessional memory.
We then consider apparitions associated with the wicked lifestyle of the soldier and how these acted as supernatural figures of discipline and punishment. We will examine how apparitions negotiated anxieties involving loss, how they warned of death and, as wraiths, conveyed news from the fallen to loved ones far away. I hope to show how people who thought of themselves as Protestants or were identified by others as such, understood apparitions and supernatural tropes and activity that could be linked to the realm of the dead.
This, in turn, will show continuities across time and region of a supernatural that adapted to serve the needs of society and the individual. Place and Haunting If a drunken farmer, returning from market, fell from Old Dobbin and broke his neck-or a carter, under the same predicament, tumbled from his cart or waggon, and was killed by it-that spot was ever after haunted and impassable: In short, there was scarcely a bye-lane or cross-way but had its ghost. Problems concerning the reconstruction of mentalities from texts have already been discussed in the introduction though of course in this instance, where place is so much linked to oralities, we are at a disadvantage.
I will argue that by looking at the texts as well as anthropological models on how place interacts with memories, and how pollution and liminality are linked to location, that this difficulty can be surmounted to a degree. Furthermore, by considering how aspects of hauntedness of place were understood within Christian traditions, and how liminal landscapes played host to both the dead and non-human spirits and places, we can approach more clearly the question of discernment which lay at the core of Reformation debates regarding the identity of the ghost.
Much of the recent research into the ghosts of early modern England and Germany has focused on a spectre haunting the person for a specific purpose, where the setting in which the story occurs is incidental to the grander moral and metaphysical message imparted by the encounter with the spirit itself.
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The purposeful and interventionist nature of early modern haunting has been noted by several historians. Other spirits demand justice, either for their heirs or their murderers and portents point out the workings of Providence.
It is the nature and action of the spirit and the response of the witnesses which are important. London, , 3. Place becomes a mere incidental backdrop for this encounter. The haunted house, castle or cemetery were not so much creations of the gothic but a repackaging of much older tropes. The haunted house has been an enduring trope in the western literary tradition from the time of Plautus and Pliny and likewise, when we look closely, we find many stigmatised properties in early modern English and German texts.
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Ruined buildings, whether secular or religious, litter the sixteenth and seventeenth-century records with the fear they evoked. Haunted castles are prominent throughout the German texts and inns too had an evil reputation, tainted with supernatural skulduggery. Graveyards were perceived as places of dread and pollution and best avoided at night.
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A whole landscape of fear unfolds before the reader with some spirits bound to places while others roamed the countryside and forests. Even portents, seen often as workings of divine Providence, were often tied to a family home or seat or place where power was exercised. This chapter will examine these issues. It will set out the case that place was vital to an understanding of what ghosts and spirits were, and what their functions were in the early modern English and German landscapes.
Download it once and read it on your Kindle. They also remained similar throughout the period. Despite this, Lavater, Of Ghostes, What is of most interest is how Erasmus, a scholar so much on the cusp of the middle ages and early modern period, established the physical setting for the tale in a dialogue between a Thomas and Anselmus. It is in a format familiar to anyone today who appreciates a traditional ghost story. Th: Perfectly well. Th: I am apt enough to believe that; for he's a Man to do any Part to the Life. Th: Oh! Very well.
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He and I have crackt many a Bottle together there. Ans: There's a way, you know, betwixt two streight Rows of Trees. Ans: That's it. One side of the way has a dry Ditch, that's over-grown with Brambles; and then there's a little Bridge, that leads into an open Field. Th: I remember it. It is a vital issue when reconstructing ghosts in popular belief. The local ghost is a ghost based on oralities. It is the ghost taught by the women and old.
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It is the spirit that one was taught to fear as a child alongside the dark and wild places, the dread of which persists long after childhood is over. It is the one actually encountered, in place. It is more powerful than the one of the polemical text, penned by clergymen or intellectuals. Of course, aspects of the wider mentality of the time filter down into local interpretations and tropes of the supernatural but that supernatural still most often occurs in a place known to that community. Whereas the polemical ghost encountered in the print texts is one defining confessional boundaries, the local ghost acts to define community identity in which the tale is set.
Country people were famed for their storytelling skills encompassing a bestiary of mythical beings and creatures such as giants, devils, fairies and goblins alongside their own tales of Caesar and King Arthur in England. Ghosts played a major part in these tales and legends.
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